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Nguyễn Văn Canh

PHẦN II: CHỦ QUYỀN DÂN TỘC.

B. HỒ CHÍ MINH VÀ ĐẢNG CỘNG SẢN VIỆT NAM BÁN NƯỚC

Chương I: Các Văn Kiện Bán Nước

Chương II: Các Hành vi Bán Nước

Chương III: Các Hành Động Nối Giáo Cho Giặc

Chương IV: Diễn Tiến Hành Động Đưa Trung Cộng Vào Đặt Ách Nô Lệ Hóa Dân Việt

PHẦN III: PHỤ CHƯƠNG VÀ PHỤ LỤC

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PHẦN III: PHỤ CHƯƠNG VÀ PHỤ LỤC

I. PHỤ CHƯƠNG

3. VC GIẢI THÍCH VẤN ĐỀ LÃNH THỔ LÃNH HẢI NHƯ THẾ NÀO?

...

LKT: Now we talk about the Gulf of Tonkin and Sansha District matters as well as the Decree on Fishing between Vietnam and China. According to recent presentations in conferences that you conducted, the Gulf of Tonkin is now considered almost a conspiration between Vietnam and China which allows China to control that Gulf. Could you please describe how the Gulf of Tonkin is controlled and how the Gulf of Tonkin is carved up for fishing, with respective economic rights and benefits for Vietnam and China?

Prof Canh: The listeners and audience would be aware that in December 2000, the VC and CC signed an agreement concerning the demarcation in the Gulf of Tonkin region. In addition, they appended another agreement called the agreement on cooperation of fishing in the Gulf region. About these matters, Le Cong Phung stated that the 1887 Convention was the basis for redefining the Gulf area and the loss of area was negligible if at all, and Vietnam’s gain amounted to several thousand square kilometres according to the law of the sea (1982). Phung has denied all losses. And so let me demonstrate how much has been lost, and what is the present situation of the Gulf of Tonkin.

The map we use here is that of the Gulf of Tonkin as defined by the 1887 Convention and was drawn in an agreement by both sides (see map in appendix). Starting from Mong Cai here, and we can see a red line running north-south from Mong Cai down across the mouth of the Gulf, with one side being Huang Liu of Hainan, and the other side, our Con Co island of Northern Vietnam. That is the mouth of the Gulf measuring about 130 nautical miles. Let me stress that this red line is the line drawn in the map of the 1887 Convention signed between the Qing dynasty and France. This red line lies east to Tra Co (Tch’a- Kou) island, running south to the mouth of the Gulf. The part to the west of this line belongs to Vietnam, and that to the east, to China. Before signing the agreement, Ly Hung Chang complained that China had lost heavily, ceding too much territory to France and continuously made requests for “this and that extra bit”. At that time Constans, the French government emissary (for signing this convention to divide up the Gulf region) wanted to return to France as soon as possible, and ceded to China a piece of land called Pack Lung Cape, about 20 or 30 km east of Mong Cai. In addition, there was a enclave on the other side of the border called Soc Son village that had belonged to Vietnam, under Father Pierre’s administration. Both were also given to China. This leaves only the area west of the red line from Mong Cai downward as ours, otherwise that red line should be drawn from Pack Lung Cape, not from Mong Cai.


And they drew a Red Line like that to divide up the territory. According to that Convention, it is the border line dividing up the Gulf region. What is the area of the Gulf region? It is about 123,700 sq. km. Based on this Red borderline, Vietnam owns 77,000 sq. km and China the remainder. The Franco- Chinese convention stipulates that 64% belongs to Vietnam, and only 36% to China. Now they have signed an agreement in 2000 to split 54/46, what did they base on? At first, CPV demanded that the Franco-Chinese Convention be basis for negotiation. The CC said no, because that convention was signed under the treacherous oppression of French imperialists, and as a consequence, China had to concede. It was an inequitable agreement. That is why CC now wants to be more equitable. That had been CC’s demand since the 1970s, to which the VC had not acceded either.

The CC have reasoned that the Red Line was only a line for the sake of administering the islands, not a frontier demarcation line. The convention therefore should be annulled and the border re-drawn. However, if we look at the imperial Franco-Chinese Convention text to determine whether it is an ‘administrative’ line or a border line, we find that this line is clearly defined in that Convention as the border between the two sides. Nevertheless CC exerts its power in bringing pressure to bear on the VC in insisting that this line is an administrative one, and not a border. Today all that CC demanded has been satisfied by the VC. What then, is the situation of the Gulf of Tonkin agreement today?

The CC demanded that a border line should go from Mong Cai to the middle of the Gulf, then head south to split the gulf in halves. There are 21 reference points starting with point no. 1 at Mong Cai, as shown on the attached map, that demarcation line curves out to the middle of the gulf ending at point 21. All the part to the east of it belongs to CC, while the western part to Vietnam. As a result Vietnam only occupies 54%, China about 46%. After this re-determination of the border, Vietnam has lost 11,000 sq. km.

When such an agreement to divide the gulf has been reached, China was still greedy. They said they wanted an agreement on shared fishing. Thus there are two agreements in reality, one agreement on territorial determination, and another on shared fishing. What in effect does this fishing pact involve?

This pact determines that from each side of the demarcation line, each country must contribute 30.5 nautical miles to a common fishing area. This means fishing together. This is a large area, lying south of the 20th parallel occupying 35000 sq. km. The pact is to last 12 years and can be extended for another 3 years, totalling 15 years. That is not all. There is another region north of Bach Long Vy island. This is called the smaller transition area, and its limit is for 4 years only.

The question is: Why, after the gulf has been divided, must there be common fishing still? And why did the VC accept such a common fishing arrangement? Don’t they have the capacity to fish on their own, or they must co-operate with the CC in order to fish? This is an unimaginable concession to the Chinese communists.

 

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